Sites of Interest to The East of Newton-le-Willows

Site number 01
Site name Winwick to Golborne Line
NGR SJ 5948 9484 to SJ 5977 9535
Site type Railway
Period Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 5994/16
Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; Ordnance Survey 1893c
Description The railway was bnilt in the late nineteenth century to connect the Liverpool and Manchester railway line (Site 02) with the Warrington to Preston route. It first appears on the 1893 Ordnance Survey maps and thereafter on all subsequent Ordnance Survey maps.
Assessment The site lies on the outside edge of the application site boundary and will not be directly affected by the proposed development.
Site number 02
Site name Liverpool and Manchester Railway
NGR SJ 5977 9535 to SJ 6010 9540
Site type Railway
Period Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 5994/160 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; LRO DRL 1/56 1839; Ordnance Survey 1849a and 1849b; Crosby 1998
Description
Assessment Due to the nature of the proposed development, the site is likely to be affected.
Site number 03
Site name Huskisson Memorial
NGR SJ 6053 9549
Site type Memorial
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6095/10
Designation Listed Building 216335 (Grade II)
Sources Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description A memorial erected to commemorate the death of William Huskisson, MP for Liverpool, who was killed at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester passenger railway in 1830 in the first public railway accident in Great Britain. The monument is in the Egyptian style, and was taken to Manchester to allow repair work to be carried out before being reinstated in its original location on the south side of the Liverpool and Manchester railway (Site 02).
Assessment The site lies on the outside of the northern boundary of the application site, and should not be affected by any construction works, although its visual setting may be potentially affected.
Site number 04
Site name Parkside Road
NGR SJ 604 954
Site type Road, Park boundary
Period Medieval/Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6095/8 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; Lewis 1988
Description The Newton Court Book of 1681 records that Richard Hilton and Edmund Heywood are to repair high way between Newton Park and Lawton Land-end (Legh Deeds P.A.2, John Rylands Library, Manchester, quoted in the MHER). The road is shown on map coverage from 1745 onwards (Yoxall 1745). It is likely that this forms the eastern boundary of Newton Park, which dates back to at least the fourteenth century (Lewis 1988, 2).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 05
Site name Newton Park Farmhouse
NGR SJ 5975 9498
Site type Farmhouse
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 5994/1
Designation Listed Building 216327 (Grade II)
Sources Lewis 1988; MRO 296 1827; GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description This building is a late eighteenth century structure, with a datestone of 1770. The site can be traced back to the 1827 estate map (MRO 296 1827). Most of the ancillary farm buildings were demolished between 1979 and 1989, but a timber-framed barn still stands. The site was surveyed in 1988 by the North West Archaeological Trust (Lewis 1988). The building is a three-storeyed brown brick mansion with five windows, alterations, and modern wings on each side. It has a stone cove cornice and a pediment above the centre. There are stone cill bands, and the window heads are channelled as voussoirs, with keys. The building has a slate roof, and sash windows with glazing bars (recessed on the entrance front, and near-flush frames at the rear).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 06
Site name Newton Park Barn
NGR SJ 5980 9498
Site type Barn
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 5994/2
Designation Listed Building 216326 (Grade II)
Sources Lewis 1988; GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; Yoxall 1745; LRO DRL 1/56 1839; Ordnance Survey 1849c
Description This structure seems to be the building referred to as The Lodge in a letter of 1755 which also states that it was converted into a dwelling house and used as a farm house shortly after the estate was purchased in 1657. The site can be traced on the 1745 township map (Yoxall 1745), the 1839 tithe map (LRO DRL 1/56 1839), the Ordnance Survey first edition 1:10560 map (Ordnance Survey 1849c), and on all subseqnent maps. This farmstead is first referred to in a document of 1657 when it was known as Newton Barn Farm; an inventory of 1700/1 may refer to this farmhouse, which appears to have had eleven rooms. The building dates to the sixteenth to early seventeenth century, and has a timber box frame with brick cladding of eighteenth and nineteenth century date. The west end was rebuilt in brick. There are seven bays, with a central threshing floor that has entrances in gabled porches. The north side has outshuts for cow houses.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 07
Site name Parkside Colliery Sidings
NGR SJ 5994 9537 to SJ 5995 9418
Site type Railway
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/16 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description Rail sidings, associated with the former Parkside Colliery opened in 1964, allowed direct access from the Liverpool and Manchester railway line. The rail sidings were closed when Parkside Colliery ceased production in 1991 (GMAC 1995, 10). All rail lines have been removed, although earthwork embankments remain in the north.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 08
Site name Coppice Wood
NGR SJ 6000 9490
Site type Coppice
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/13 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; LRO DRL 1/56 1839
Description The site first occurs on the tithe map (LRO DRL 1/56 1839), and occurs on all subsequent map material until the mid twentieth century. The construction of Parkside Colliery in the early 1960s destroyed the site of this ancient woodland. Assessment The position of the site lies within the proposed development. However, no evidence remains.
Site number 09
Site name Parkside Colliery
NGR SJ 6003 9474
Site type Colliery
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/14 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; Ashmore 1982; Phillips and Smith 1994
Description The colliery was opened in 1964 and closed in 1991. It was one of the new super-pits of the mid twentieth century and was part of the Coal Board’s drive for greater efficiency, and replaced many of the smaller collieries of the coalfield in the St Helens area, whose antecedents stretched back to the nineteenth century (GMAC 1995, 10). The colliery complex covered almost all of the western and central part of the study area, and included concrete pithead buildings, covered head gear, a conical washery and railway sidings (Ashmore 1982, 167). At its peak the site employed over 3500 people (Phillips and Smith 1994, 328).
Assessment The site will be directly affected by the proposed development, although much of the remains and structures have been removed, and the shafts capped off and infilled.
Site number 10 53.44771, -2.59016
Site name Circular cropmark
NGR SJ 6081 9474
Site type Cropmark Period Unknown
HER number MITER Si 6094/11
Designation
Sources Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description A cropmark site identified through aerial photographic reconnaissance. This site is believed to represent a ring ditch (R Philpott, pers comm), possibly the remains of a ploughed-out barrow.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 11 53.44583, -2.58833
Site name Structures near Parkside Road
NGR SJ 6093 9453
Site type Buildings
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/4 Designation
Sources Wardell Armstrong 2001; Yoxall 1745; LRO DRL 1/56 1839
Description A building is shown on the 1745 township map (Yoxall 1745), and a number of structures are observed on the 1839 tithe map (LRO DRL 1/56 1839). The buildings were demolished during the construction of the M6 motorway.
Assessment The position of the site lies within the proposed development. However, no evidence remains.
Site number 12
Site name Warrington and Wigan Turnpike
NGR SJ 5948 9484 to SJ 5950 9468
Site type Road
Period Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 5994/8 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; Philpott 1988; Yoxall 1745; LRO DRL 1/56 1839
Description The Newton to Winwick road first appears on the 1745 township map (Yoxall 1745), but may be medieval in origin (Philpott 1988, 19). The present alignment first occurs on the 1839 tithe map (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) and dates from the 1800s when the Warrington and Wigan turnpike trust was first formed. The new turnpike was realigned between its junction with the road to Newton Park Farm in the north and Red Bank Farm on Newton Brook in the south. This re-alignment cut through the southwestern edge of Newton Park and now forms the modern course of the A49. The old alignment survives as a hollow-way north-east of Red Bank Farm (Philpott 1988, 57).
Assessment The site lies on the outside edge of the application site boundary and it is unlikely that it will be directly affected by the proposed development.
Site number 13
Site name Curvilinear cropmark
NGR SJ 5954 9459 to SJ 5963 9462
Site type Cropmark
Period Natural
HER number MHER SJ 5994/15 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; Matrix Archaeology 200 lb
Description A curvilinear cropmark was identified by GMAC in 1995 from vertical aerial photographs taken in 1979 (GMAC 1995, 9). The cropmark was thought to represent a buried ditch of unknown date and function, and to relate to the medieval park, or to be a pre-park feature (ibid). The aerial photographs were re-examined in 2000 by Matrix Archaeology, and a very poorly defined broad arc of possible parching was identified, within which was a poorly defined circular feature (Matrix Archaeology 2001b, 8). These features were located approximately 40m to the north-west of the position given by Nevell; nothing was seen at the original location (ibid). The parch marks identified were evaluated by the excavation of two trenches, and no features of archaeological significance were identified (op cit, 8-10). The complex geology found at the base of the trenches was thought to be responsible for the parching effect seen on the photograph (op cit, 10).
Assessment The site is of natural origin.
Site number 14
Site name Subcircular cropmarks
NGR SJ 5966 9446
Site type Cropmark
Period Natural HER number Designation
Sources Wardell Armstrong 2001; Matrix Archaeology 2001b
Description Three subcircular cropmarks were identified by Wardell Armstrong on a vertical aerial photograph taken in 1966 (Wardell Armstrong 2001, Appendix 16, 9). The sites appeared to be closely related and were thought to represent small enclosures (ibid). They were not shown on any of the maps, and were therefore thought to be associated with the medieval park or to be representative of earlier settlement (ibid). The cropmarks identified were evaluated by Matrix Archaeology by the excavation of two trenches, and no features of archaeological significance were identified (Matrix Archaeology 200lb, 10-12). The complex geology found at the base of the trenches was thought to be responsible for the cropmarks seen on the photograph (op cit, 12).
Assessment The site is of natural origin.
Site number 15
Site name Subcircular cropmark
NGR SJ 5982 9447
Site type Cropmark
Period Natural HER number
Designation
Sources Wardell Armstrong 2001; Matrix Archaeology 200 lb
Description A subcircular cropmark was identified by Wardell Armstrong on a vertical aerial photograph taken in 1966 (Wardell Armstrong 2001, Appendix 16, 9). It was not shown on any of the maps, and was therefore thought to be associated with the medieval park or to be representative of earlier settlement (ibid). The cropmark identified was evaluated by Matrix Archaeology by the excavation of a single trench, and no features of archaeological significance were identified (Matrix Archaeology 2001b, 12, 13).
Assessment The site is of natural origin.
Site number 16
Site name Dumballs Field/Gallows Croft
NGR SJ 5970 9420
Site type Fieldnamc
Period Medieval/Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 5994/7 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; LRO DRL 1/56 1839; Ordnance Survey 1849c
Description The fieldname occurs in an estate survey of 1750-2 (GMAC 1995, 9), a survey of 1795 (ibid) and on the tithe apportionment (LRO DRL 1/56 1839, entry no 357). This may possibly be a reference to the finding of musket balls in this area from the battle of Red Bank in 1648 (GMAC 1995, 9). In 1985 a member of the public reported to Merseyside HER that musket balls were found in the field immediately south of Dumballs, on the opposite side of Newton Brook, traditionally where the focus of the Civil War battle had been located. The area encompassing this field is also known as Gallows Croft, a place-name that occurs on the Ordnance Survey first edition 1:10560 map (Ordnance Survey 1849c), apparently referring to the south-western corner of the field where it meets Newton Brook and the A49. There are two local traditions concerning the origin of this name. The first states that Cromwell’s soldiers hanged many of the prisoners in this field that they had taken at the battle of Red Bank in 1648 (GMAC 1995, 9). The second asserts that it was the site of the baronial gallows tree (Lane 1919, 44). This latter suggestion is supported by the occurrence of the place-name Gawlehille in the Legh survey of 1465/6, which was located to the south-east of Newton Hall, in this area (GMAC 1995, 9).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 17
Site name Newton Park Pale
NGR SJ 5956 9419 to 5966 9417
Site type Park Pale
Period Medieval
HER number MHER SJ 6094/03 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description A degraded bank, roughly 1.5m wide and no more than lm high, was noted by GMAC running along the south-western edge of Gallows Croft for 120m eastwards from Newton Road on the projected line of the medieval park pale (GMAC 1995, 9). Only the easternmost 80m lies within the study area, and this section is the most degraded stretch (ibid). There was no trace of a ditch (ibid). The only other stretch of the Newton Park pale that has so far been identified is north-east of Red Bank Farm and west of the A49, beyond the study area (ibid).
Assessment The site may be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 18
Site name Parkside Colliery Spoil Heap
NGR SJ 5995 9423
Site type Spoil Heap
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 5994/10 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Matrix Archaeology 2001b; Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description A sub-rectangular cropmark c50m x 60m was noted on the 1979, 1984 and 1988 vertical aerial photographs, and was interpreted as a medieval feature (GMAC 1995, 9). The area was evaluated by Matrix Archaeology in 2001, revealing extensive deposits of colliery spoil (Matrix Archaeology 2001b, 13). The site was re-interpreted as an extensive graded colliery spoil heap, dumped prior to 1979, possibly making it one of the earliest spoil heaps of Parkside Colliery (op cit, 14).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary.
Site number 19
Site name Quarry
NGR SJ 5973 9418
Site type Quarry
Period Post-medieval?
HER number MHER SJ 5994/12 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001 GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001; Collens 1995; Matrix Archaeology 2001a This enclosure was identified on aerial photographs as a rectangular double-ditched enclosure with sharp corners (GMAC 1995, 9). The feature was evaluated in 2001, and revealed that the feature comprised two ditches from separate phases (Matrix Archaeology 2001a). The upper fills of the inner ditch revealed late medieval to early post-medieval pottery, and hand-made brick fragments, suggesting that a building was located nearby, possibly within the enclosure itself (op cit, 10). The outer ditch contained later post-medieval pottery (op cit, 14), and its placement was possibly affected by the earlier ditch, suggesting that it was still present as an earthwork. Large portions of the enclosure remained unexcavated meaning that the purpose of the enclosure remains largely unknown (op cit, 21). Several possibilities exist for the purpose of the enclosure, including a stock enclosure or hunting lodge associated with the Newton Park (ibid). The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield names this field as Barrow Field (LRO DRI. 1/56 1839). This indicates the possible presence of a prehistoric or Anglo-Saxon burial mound (Gifford and Partners 1994, 5-6). The site lies within the application site boundary but is positioned beneath Junction 22 of the M6. However, it may indicate the presence of barrows in the area, particularly due to the proximity of Barrow Lane.
Description This is the site of a small sandstone quarry c 30m x 10m x 10m deep (GMAC 1995, 9). It is situated immediately to the north of the tributary stream of Newton Brook, and lying on the southern boundary of the study area (ibid). This quarry was not located during the cartographic analysis.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary.
Site number 20
Site name Hermitage Farm Cropmark NCR SJ 6022 9406
Site type Double-Ditched Enclosure
Period Unknown
HER number CHER 576 Designation Sources
Description
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 21
Site name Spoil Heap
NGR SJ 6041 9433
Site type Spoil heap
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/15 Designation
Sources GMAC 1995; Wardell Armstrong 2001
Description This is a late twentieth century spoil heap for Parkside Colliery, which covers the south-eastern quadrant of the study area, and stands up to 30m high (GMAC 1995, 9). It is currently landscaped and grassed over (ibid).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary.
Site number 22
Site name Barrow Field
NGR SJ 6135 9390
Site type Fieldname
Period Prehistoric?
HER number MHER SJ 6193/1 Designation
Sources Gifford and Partners 1994; LRO DRL 1/56 1839
Description
Assessment
Site number 23
Site name Lancashire/Cheshire County Boundary
NGR SJ 602 942 and SJ 613 938
Site type County Boundary
Period Medieval?/Post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources Gifford and Partners 1994
Description The County Boundary between Lancashire and Cheshire, subsequently between Merseyside and Cheshire, follows a tributary of Newton Brook for part of its length to the south of Newton Park. Further east it runs through fields, across the junction between the A49 and the M6, and along Waterworks Lane. It is possible that some physical remains of this boundary survive, such as boundary markers, or a bank and ditch (Gifford and Partners 1994, 5).
Assessment The site will be directly affected by the proposed development, although in the east (SJ 613 938) any remains within the site boundary will have been destroyed by the construction of Junction 22 of the M6.
Site number 24
Site name Red Bank Battle Site
NGR SJ 5969 9404
Site type Battlefield
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 5994/3 Designation
Sources Carter 1971; Lane 1914; Ordnance Survey 1849c
Description This is the site of a Civil War battle (Ordnance Survey 1849c), part of what was known as the Battle of Preston (Lane 1914), that took place in August 1648 between Royalists under the command of the Duke of Hamilton and Oliver Cromwell (Carter 1971, 25). Cromwell’s forces are thought to have killed a thousand men, and taken two thousand captive (Lane 1914).
Assessment Although the site of the battle lies to the south of the development area, it is probable that the battle stretched beyond its recorded boundaries. Consequently, there may be some outlying finds associated with the battle. The battlefield may also be visually affected by the proposed development.
Site number 25
Site name St Oswald’s Well
NGR SJ 6074 9409
Site type Well
Period Medieval
HER number CHER 591; MHER SJ 6094/1
Designation SM 30378; Listed Building 216334 (Grade II)
Sources Carter 1971
Description This is a medieval well. associated with the Northumbrian King, Oswald, who died at the battle of Maserfelth, fighting against the Mercian King, Penda in 642 AD (Carter 1971, 23). The well is stone-built, with water still present. A large stone slab covers the opening.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 26
Site name Parkside Farm
NGR SJ 6187 9499
Site type Farm
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/9 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745
Description The farmhouse was constructed during the 1980s, and has now been demolished, although some of the farm buildings are probably eighteenth century. The farm buildings form an L-shape east of the demolished farmhouse and one small structure, possibly dating to the eighteenth century, lies to the north of the aforementioned farmhouse. The remaining buildings are believed to be in a poor state of repair.
Assessment The site lies within the proposed development area and will be affected.
Site number 27
Site name Monk House
NGR SJ 6086 9426
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 6094/7 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745
Description The house can be traced back to the township map of 1745 (Yoxall 1745). It is a two-storey building, pebble-dashed with a grey slate roof. The upper windows are low rectangular in form, directly under the eaves.
Assessment The site lies within an area of exclusion within the application site boundary. However, it may be indirectly affected in terms of visual impact, and noise and vibration.
Site number 28
Site name The Cottage
NGR SJ 6075 9404
Site type Cottage
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/5 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745
Description The Cottage can be traced back to the township map of 1745 (Yoxall 1745) and was previously known as Piper Hole. Field observations made by staff at MHER show that it was modernised in the 1980s, when it was re-roofed, all new windows were inserted, and it was rendered so that no trace of the original structure was visible. It also has new chimneys.
Assessment The site lies within an area of exclusion within the application site boundary. However, it may be indirectly affected in terms of visual impact, and noise and vibration.
Site number 29
Site name Woodhead Farmhouse
NGR SJ 6073 9426
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/2
Designation Listed Building 216332 (Grade II)
Sources MRO 296 1827
Description The farmhouse probably dates to the late eighteenth century. It is a three-storey brick building with stone dressings and a slate roof. It can be traced back to the estate map of 1827 (MRO 296 1827).
Assessment The site does not lie within the application site boundary. However, due to its statutory designation, its visual setting and the effects of noise and vibration need to he considered.
Site number 30
Site name Woodhead Barn
NGR SJ 6074 9426
Site type Barn
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6094/8
Designation Listed Building 216333 (Grade II)
Sources MRO 296 1827
Description The barn probably dates to the eighteenth century. It has five bays, and is brick-built with stone dressings and a slate roof. It can be traced back to the estate map of 1827 (MRO 296 1827).
Assessment The site does not lie within the application site boundary. However, due to its statutory designation, its visual setting and the effects of noise and vibration need to be considered.
Site number 31
Site name Smithy Croft
NGR SJ 5955 9510
Site type Fieldname
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield names this field as Smithy Croft (LRO DRL 1/56 1839). This indicates the possible presence of a Smithy.
Assessment The site will not be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 32
Site name Lane by the Kiln
NGR SJ 6010 9490
Site type Fieldname
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield names this field as Lane by the Kiln (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) suggesting the presence of a Kiln nearby.
Assessment The site is likely to have been destroyed by Parkside Colliery. Therefore, it is unlikely that it will be directly affected by the proposed development.
Site number 33
Site name Lodges Close
NGR SJ 5980 9520
Site type Fieldname
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number
Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield names this field as Lodges Close (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) relating to the Lodge at Newton Park farm (Site 06).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 34
Site name Old House Field
NGR SJ 5980 9490
Site type Fieldname
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield names this field as Old House Field (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) presumably relating to the house at Newton Park Farm (Site 05).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 35
Site name Stone House Field
NGR SJ 5985 9465
Site type Fieldname
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield names this field as Stone House Field (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) suggesting the existence of such a feature in the past. However, there was no evidence for a structure on the maps.
Assessment The site is likely to have been destroyed by Parkside Colliery. Therefore, it is unlikely that it will be directly affected by the proposed development.
Site number 36
Site name Waterworks Lane
NGR SJ 6140 9400
Site type Road, township boundary
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield shows the road to Winwick (LRO DRL 1/56 1839). This road forms the township boundary between Newton-1eWillows and Croft.
Assessment The site lies within the proposed development area and will be affected.
Site number 37
Site name Red Bank Mill
NGR SJ 5944 9423
Site type Mill
Period Medieval/post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources LRO DRL 1/56, 1839
Description The Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield shows Red Bank Mill (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) which is later named Red Bank.
Assessment The site will not be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 38
Site name Rough Farm
NGR SJ 6141 9399
Site type Farm
Period Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 6193/2 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; LRO DRL 1/56, 1839, Ordnance Survey 1849; MHER notes from site visit, 1985
Description Some buildings are shown in the area of Rough Farm on Yoxall’s map of 1745, and the Tithe Apportionment for the Township of Makerfield shows a group of buildings (LRO DRL 1/56 1839) which is later named Rough Farm on the Ordnance Survey first edition map 1849 and subsequent mapping. The MHER conducted a site visit in 1985, and recorded that the barn was nineteenth century or possibly late eighteenth century in date. It had a thin grey slate roof, a circular stone-lined hay loft ‘window’, and a large cart door, but it was much altered at the front. A building is shown in this location by Yoxall (1745), and it was named Barrow Lane House it 1849 (Ordnance Survey). Its name changed to Barrow Lane Farm in 1893, and then to Barrow Lane Cottages (together with Site 42) in 1908 (Ordnance Survey). When MHER carried out a site visit in 1985 it was observed that the building had been demolished and the site was occupied by an arable field. There was a lay-by on
Assessment The site lies within the proposed development area and will be affected.
Site number 39
Site name Post-medieval field system, north-west of Rough Farm
NGR SJ 6130 9410
Site type Field system
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6194/1 Designation
Sources Aerial photograph held by MHER
Description Cropmarks are observed on an aerial photograph held by MHER and apparently indicate a post-medieval field system.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 40
Site name Building on north side of Barrow Lane
NGR SJ 6118 9470
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6194/2
Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; Ordnance Survey 1893b; MHER notes from site visit, 1985
Description A building is shown in this location by Yoxall (1745), and by 1893 it is no longer marked (Ordnance Survey). When MHER carried out a site visit in 1985 it was observed that the site was occupied by an arable field.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 41
Site name Barrow Lane Farm/Barrow Lane Cottages
NGR SJ 6136 9452
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6194/3
Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; Ordnance Survey 1839b, 1893b, 1908b, 1929b; MHER notes from site visit, 1985
Description the road near the site, and much brick and debris was observed in the field adjacent to the layby.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 42
Site name Building on north side of Barrow Lane
NGR SJ 6145 9450
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6194/4
Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; Ordnance Survey 1908b; MHER notes from site visit, 1985
Description A building is shown in this location by Yoxall (1745), and it is named Barrow Lane Cottages (together with Site 41) in 1908 (Ordnance Survey). When MHER carried out a site visit in 1985 it was observed that the building had been demolished and the site was occupied by an arable field.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 43
Site name Rough Cottage Kennels
NGR SJ 6142 9401
Site type Cottage
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6194/7 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; MHER notes from site visits, 1985 and 1994
Description Yoxall’s map of 1745 shows a building in the same location as Rough Cottage, adjacent to the road. The MHER conducted a site visit in 1985, and recorded that the cottage was whitewashed and rendered, all the windows and the porch were new, and the gable walls were stark. It was a two-storey mid eighteenth century brick cottage, and was a narrow single room depth building. In 1994 a further site visit was made, due to a planning application to develop the site and demolish the buildings for a motorway service station. Rough Cottage Kennels were photographed from the outside, and later the same year the site was truncated by demolition for the proposed M6 service station area.
Assessment The site lies within the proposed development area and is likely to be affected.
Site number 44
Site name Circular cropmark
NGR SJ 6151 9452
Site type Cropmark
Period Unknown
HER number MHER SJ 6194/8 Designation
Sources Plot of features abstracted from Liverpool Museum 94 2092 colour oblique aerial photographs, held by MHER
Description A circular cropmark, identified as a Bronze Age ring ditch, was identified from colour oblique aerial photographs north-east of Barrow Lane, and west of Waterworks Lane. The crop-nark was plotted in relation to the field boundaries by R Philpott, and was described as c6.5m in diameter.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 45
Site name Post-medieval field system, east of M6 motorway
NGR SJ 612 944
Site type Field system
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6194/9 Designation
Sources Aerial photograph held by MHER
Description A post-medieval field system was identified at this location from aerial photographs.
Assessment The site lies within the application site bonndary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 46
Site name Wood Head Delph
NGR SJ 6080 9435
Site type Quarry
Period Post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources Ordnance Survey 1849b; Ordnance Survey 1908c
Description A sandstone quarry is shown in the mid nineteenth century (Ordnance Survey 1849b), and by 1908 it is shown as disused (Ordnance Survey 1908c).
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 47
Site name Highfield Farm; Moss House
NGR SJ 6093 9545
Site type Farm
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6095/1
Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; MHER notes from site visit, 1985
Description There is cartographic evidence for the existence of a building in the location of the present farmhouse at Highfield Farm as early as 1745 (Yoxall 1745). The MHER conducted a site visit in 1985, and recorded that the former brick-built farmhouse was demolished and a modern house built on the same site in the early 1970s. The earlier building had a date in Roman numerals inscribed on a plaster imitation datestone, but the building’s owner could not remember what year it was.
Assessment The site lies outside the application site boundary, although its visual setting may be affected, and it may be indirectly affected during construction.
Site number 48
Site name Barn at Highfield Farm
NGR SJ 6096 9546
Site type Barn
Period Post-medieval HER number MHER SJ 6095/7 Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745; MHER notes from site visit, 1985
Description There is cartographic evidence for the existence of a building in the location of the present barn at Highfield Farm as early as 1745 (Yoxall 1745). The barn was described by the MHER in 1985 after a site visit as follows: the sandstone walls are extended in brick. Finally a western extension was added. The early appearance of the first phase of brick may indicate that the sandstone walls should be placed in the seventeenth century at the latest. Internally two triangular buttresses in brick support the main cross beam of the roof. The roof still has stone flags on the southern half, but modern corrugated sheeting to the north. Parkside Station, on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, is infamous as the site where William Huskisson was killed when the railway opened in 1830 (Singleton 1975, 64). The staircase and foundations of the station buildings are visible in the undergrowth (op cit, 68). The station was closed after only a few years in the 1840s, and two hundred yards to the east lies the site of the later LNWR Parkside Station, which closed in 1878 (ibid). A pumping station is shown on the south side of the wall (west of the main north door), and above it is a later handmade brick (stylistically later eighteenth century?) wall. The doors appear to have been inserted during the later brick phase since this brickwork extends over the doors. On the west end a more recent extension (late eighteenth to early nineteenth) has been added. The original core of the structure is therefore represented by the sandstone walls, which were added to and used as the basis of a brick barn, which was further modified and
Assessment The site lies outside the application site boundary, although its visual setting may be affected and it may be indirectly affected during construction.
Site number 49
Site name Parkside Station (LMR)
NGR SJ 6050 9551
Site type Railway Station, Pumping Station
Period Post-medieval
HER number MHER SJ 6095/11 Designation
Sources Singleton 1975; Ordnance Survey 1893b
Description Liverpool and Manchester Railway, east of Parkside Road, from at least 1893 (Ordnance Survey 1893b).
Assessment The site lies immediately to the north of the application site boundary and should not be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 50
Site name Building and ponds, 150m north-west of Oven Back Cottage, Waterworks Lane
NGR SJ 6167 9452
Site type Possible building/pond
Period Post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources MRO 296 1827; LRO DRL 1/56 1839; Ordnance Survey 1849
Description A group of ponds is shown in this position on the estate map of 1827. A possible building is also shown on the first edition OS map of 1849. A clear, rectangular shaped cropmark is also visible on a recent satellite imaging.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 51
Site name Site of ponds and building 450m south-east of Parkside Farm, Barrow Road
NGR SJ 6125 9476
Site type Possible building/pond
Period Post-medieval
HER number Designation
Sources Ordnance Survey 1849
Description A number of ponds and a small rectangular structure is identified in this location on the first edition OS map. This feature is not shown on any later maps, probably due to a change in the field system in this area.
Assessment The site lies within the application site boundary, and may potentially be affected by the proposed development.
Site number 52
Site name Oven Back Farm, Waterworks Lane
NGR SJ 6171 9433
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources MRO 296 1827; Ordnance Survey 1849; Ordnance Survey 1893
Description Two buildings are shown in the location of the existing farm on the 1827 estate map. The site is identified as New Oven Back on the first edition OS map of 1849, and as Oven Back Farm on the second edition OS map of 1893.
Assessment The site lies outside the application site boundary, although its visual setting may be affected, and it may be indirectly affected during construction and operation.
Site number 53
Site name Oven Back Cottage, Waterworks Lane
NGR SJ 6180 9448
Site type Building
Period Post-medieval HER number Designation
Sources MRO 296 1827; Ordnance Survey 1849; Ordnance Survey 1893
Description Two buildings are shown in the location of the existing farm on the 1827 estate map. The site is identified as Old Oven Back on the first edition OS map of 1849, and as Oven Back Cottage on the second edition OS map of 1893
Assessment The site lies outside the application site boundary, although its visual setting may be affected.
Site number 54
Site name Barrow Lane
NGR SJ 6167 9435 to SJ 6087 9491
Site type Road
Period Post-medieval (possibly earlier) HER number Designation
Sources Yoxall 1745
Description The road, which connects Parkside Road and Waterworks Lane, was first identified on Yoxall’s map of 1745 and is now a narrow single-lane concrete road that has been deliberately blocked half way along its length.
Assessment The site lies within the proposed development area and is likely to be affected.
Site number 55
Site name Merseyside/Greater Manchester County Boundary
NGR SJ 6179 9453 to SJ 6127 9521
Site type County Boundary
Period Medieval?/post-medieval HER number
Sources Designation Ordnance Survey 1893
Description The County boundary was first identified on the second edition OS map (1893), where it marked the boundary between Lancashire and Cheshire. It later became the boundary for the new counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester respectively, after reorganisation of the counties in 1974. Part of the boundary delineates the eastern extent of the proposed development area.
Assessment The site lies on the edge of the proposed development area and may be affected.